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National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme

Introduction

Launched in 2003-04 by merging National anti-malaria control programme, National Filaria Control Programme and Kala Azar Control programmes. Japanese B Encephalitis and Dengue/DHF have also been included in this Program. Directorate of NAMP is the nodal agency for prevention and control of major Vector Borne Diseases

List of Vector Borne Diseases Control Programme Legislations:

  1. National Anti - Malaria programme
  2. Kala - Azar Control Programme
  3. National Filaria Control Programme
  4. Japenese Encephilitis Control Programme
  5. Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic fever.

National Anti-Malaria Programme

Malaria is one of the serious public health problems in India. At the time of independence malaria was contributing 75 million cases with 0.8 million deaths every year prior to the launching of National Malaria Control Programme in 1953. A countrywide comprehensive programme to control malaria was recommended in 1946 by the Bhore committee report that was endorsed by the Planning Commission in 1951. The national programme against malaria has a long history since that time. In April 1953, Govt. of India launched a National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP).

Objective:
  • To bring down malaria transmission to a level at which it would cease to be a major public health problem.

Kala -Azar Control Programme

Kala-azar or visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic disease caused by an intracellular protozoan (Leishmania species) and transmitted to man by bite of female phlebotomus sand fly. Currently, it is a main problem in Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal and some parts of Uttar Pradesh. In view of the growing problem planned control measures were initiated to control kala-azar.

Objectives:

The strategy for kala-azar control broadly included three main activities.

  • Interruption of transmission by reducing vector population through indoor residual insecticides.
  • Early diagnosis and complete treatment of Kala-azar cases; and
  • Health education programme for community awareness.

National Filaria Control Programme

Bancrftian filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, which is transmitted to man by the bites of infected mosquitoes - Culex, Anopheles, Mansonia and Aedes. Lymphatia filaria is prevalent in 18 states and union territories. Bancrftian filariasis is widely distributed while brugian filariasis caused by Brugia malayi is restricted to 6 states - UP, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Gujarat. The National Filaria Control Programme was launched in 1955. The activities were mainly confined to urban areas. However, the programme has been extended to rural areas since 1994.

Objectives:
  • Reduction of the problem in un-surveyed areas
  • Control in urban areas through recurrent anti-larval and anti-parasitic measures.

Japanese Encephalitis Control Programme

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic disease and caused by an arbovirus, group B (Flavivirus) and transmitted by Culex mosquitoes. This disease has been reported from 26 states and UTs since 1978, only 15 states are reporting JE regularly. The case fatality in India is 35% which can be reduced by early detection, immediate referral to hospital and proper medical and nursing care. The total population at risk is estimated 160 million. The most disturbing feature of JE has been the regular occurrence of outbreak in different parts of the country.

Govt. of India has constituted a Task Force at National Level which is in operation and reviews the JE situations and its control strategies from time to time. Though Directorate of National Anti-Malaria Programme is monitoring JE situation in the country.

Objectives:
  • Strengthening early diagnosis and prompt case management at PHCs, CHCs and hospitals through training of medical and nursing staff.
  • IEC for community awareness to promote early case reporting, personal protection, isolation of amplifier host, etc.;
  • Vector control measures mainly fogging during outbreaks, space spraying in animal dwellings, and antilarval operation where feasible; and
  • Development of a safe and standard indigenous vaccine. Vaccination for high risk population particularly children below 15 years of age.

Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

One of the most important resurgent tropical infectious diseases is dengue. Dengue Fever and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) are acute fevers caused by four antigenically related but distinct dengue virus serotypes (DEN 1,2,3 and 4) transmitted by the infected mosquitoes, Aedes Aegypti. Dengue outbreaks have been reported from urban areas from all states. All the four serotypes of dengue virus (1, 2, 3 and 4) exist in India. The Vector Aedes Aegypti breed in peridomestic fresh water collections and is found in both urban and rural areas.

Objectives:
  • Surveillance for disease and outbreaks
  • Early diagnosis and prompt case management
  • Vector control through community participation and social mobilization
  • Capacity building

For more information and guidelines, click here

Source: National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme



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